BRIEF HISTORY OF DUTSE [GADAWUR]

BRIEF HISTORY OF DUTSE [GADAWUR]
Legend of the people speak of an early epoch of a great hunter called [Duna-Magu] a Kanuri man who first discovered Dutse nicknamed [Gadawur] as a rich hunting ground for gazelles [Gada in Hausa]. The settlement of Garu which traditions claim pre-dated the arrival of Bagauda to Kano in the dying years of the 1st millennium.
The earliest written reference to Dutse is reported in the   famous Kano chronicle which mentioned its defeat  by Sarkin Kano [Abdullahi Burja C. 1438=1452], who was said to have followed up the defeat with the marriage of a daughter of the Sarkin Dutse alongside the daughters of his Galadima.
The earliest written reports indicated  that  by the opening years of 18th century, Dutse had grown into a very big town comprising of about seventy wards within its walled vicinity. The wall, which was built around the rock clusters, enclosing [Jambo stream] within the central  area, hand twelve city gates [Kofofin Gari] named after the nearest wards:
1. Kofar Maranjuwa    7. Kofar Ma’ai
2. Kofar Burtilan    8. Kofar Tago
3. Kofar Yina    9 Kofar Kachi
4. Kofar Kukiya    10 Kofar Gadadin
5. Kofar Bukka    11 Kofar Galadimawa
6. Kofar Galamawa    12 Kofar Rariya
Although the wall does not stand now, remnants of it are still visible in some areas.

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BRIEF HISTORY OF DUTSE RULERS  C.1732-2000
ADA, THE GREAT C. 1732-1735
The years between 1732-1735 in Dutse’s annals were dominated by a powerful figure of Fulani descent called Ada who came to the area as a
 military envoy of Sarkin Kano Kumbari, sent on a mission in 1732 to put a stop to the slave raiding forays of Sarkin Dutse [Makuri] in to Kano area.
However, no sooner had Ada defeated Sarkin Dutse [Makuri] events took an unexpected twist as he not only usurped the ruler-ship of Dutse  but also asserted his independence and further proceeded with re-organization of a strong military force to rival Kano. Little wonder within two years he not only annexed territories from Aujara, Birnin-Kudu, Kiyawa, and Ringim; but also repulsed several expeditions mounted against him by his erstwhile boss.
The period of Ada marked Dutse’s pinnacle of zenith and glory. It is said of Ada that by c. 1735 all Kano warriors were reluctant to answer further Kumbari’s   call for expedition against him. This development left Kumabri at the mercy of some 99 Kano princes who only on exacting a heavy concession agreed to come  to his aid. The princes set out on their mission to capture Ada, by dressing eunuch  impressively  in  royal regalia  as to deceitfully appear as Sarkin Kano kumbari. In   the course of the encounter that ensured, Ada who mistakenly went in pursuit of Sarkin Kano [Kumbari] found himself  facing a decoy  surrounded by the prices. Even at that point Ada rather than surrender opted to fight to his last breath.
The gallant  combat fighter he was, Ada only  gave up the ghost after killing four of the  Princes namely:-Dan Buram, Dan Lawan, Dan Maje and Dan Isa. Interestingly  however, this victory  was not followed up with a march into the walled town with a view to seizing its control for as Kano chronicle  reports the ruler of Kano was prevailed upon by his advisers not to dare make the attempt but to return  home immediately..

 


[Tsohon Mutum] an erstwhile army commander and great strategist under Sarkin Dutse [Makuri] filled the vacuum left by Ada’s death. The most remarkable  achievement of which Dutse  tradition best remember him was the building of [Ganuwar  Garu] additional wall surrounding Garu palace town with  its only one  gate [Kofar Garu].
This wall, which still visible in many areas around the town was built with a mixture of special mortar  and  lumps of stones, making the town of Garu in-axcessable  to invaders except through the only one highly fortified gate.
The additional wall around the  hilltop create a castle like  fortification within an already walled town.
Sarkin Dutse [Tsohon Mutum] Retired on the admonishment of his Queen named  Yar-Gyatuma after 60 years on the throne C1737-1797  and was followed in succession by his  two sons Natata C1797-1799 and Gwajabo C1797-1806.
Sarkin Dutse Gwajabo was over thrown by [Salihi and Musa] the Jihadist Revolutionaries who captured  Dutse in 1806.

THE ASCENDANCY OF THE FULANI IN 1806
Unanimous Dutse traditions relate about Salihi and Musa of [Yalligawa and Jalligawa] Fulani clans respectively as the principle actors who led the movement that ushered in the ascendancy of Fulani rule in 1806. It appears that the duo as the head of their clans generally referred to as [ Fulata-Borno] migrated to what is now refered to as  Dutse Gadawur from Birnin Gazargamo in Kanem- Borno Empire [Now in Yobe State] in 1801. These Fulani clans were better known as [Fellata] or [Fulbe]. They have been occupying the western part of the empire since the 16th century as a fertile grazing ground for their Livestock.
They remained distinct and refusing either to be  assimilated by the Kanuri majority nor participate politically  in the government in Gazargamo, but have always  paid local taxes, and grazing dues to the central government and local leaders in whose territories they resided.
By the  18th century, mainly as a result of the weakening of the central government, the Fellata began to bear most of the hardship. Some scholars among them  including Salihi and Musa began to criticize the government through preaching the virtues of good governance  thereby pitching them against the government. 
In 1801, the two clans [Jalligawa and Yalligawa] were forced to migrate to what is now Dutse Gadawur,  where political climate was much better. Here they have   an opportunity to establish themselves as political leaders cum Islamic scholars by wining  the hearts of the native people. Five years later, over threw the government of the Hausa ruler [Sarkin Dutse Gwajabo] in 1806 after answering the call of Othman bin Fodio, a man dubbed “the deliverer of the truth”
They left for Zamfara in the company of Malam Sulemanu where a meeting to select a leader for the Fulani in Kano was called by Shehu Bin Fodiyo. Due to some reasons Shehu could not attend the meeting but was represented by Muhammad Bello, with the instruction to appoint Mallam Suleman as [the first Fulani ruler of Kano]. On their return from Zamfara they settled briefly in Marmara quarters in  Kano city assisting [Sarkin Kano Suleman] in setting up an  administration and the preparation for the final assault against the last Hausa King Alwali in 1806. In mid 1807, they seek Sulemanu’s permission to return to Dutse after the final assault at Burunburun.
 On their return to Dutse, [Sarkin Dutse Gwajabo] could not match their war skill, nor has he the capacity to challenge their control of over the people already in the mood for change. Sarkin Dutse [Gwajabo}on assessing the political atmosphere, relinquish power  without a fight to the clans after negotiating  his retirement. He retired  until his death on a hill called [Jigawar Sarki] in Dutse  metropolis.
Defeat of EL-Kanemi forces
In 1827, barely twenty six year after their migration, the  El-Kanemi in an effort to re-capture their lost territories from the Sokoto caliphate came face to face with Sarkin Dutse Musa’s forces. Musa a war strategist hid his forces on the edge of river Kiyawa  at a village that is now called  FAKE a  Hausa ward denoting hiding. He used his knowledge [as a Fellata ] of the Kanem war strategies against them as he led his forces in an ambush when they least expected and caught them off- guard.
The El- Kanemi forces had to flee in utter confusion back to Borno abandoning some of their possessions along the way through Guddiri territory  [now Katagum]. It is as a result of this defeat, subsequent  Dutse rulers were referred to as {Mai Barnawa} meaning chief  of  Kanuri as derogatory  remark in a joking relationship between the Fellata  and the Kanuri their former hosts and rulers.
 

 

JALLIGAWA AND YALLIGAWA  [CLAN DUTSE RULERS]
1.  Salihi  dan Awwal  -  C1807-1819
2.  Musa  dan Ahmadu  -    C1819-1840
3.  Bello dan Musa   -  C1840-1849
4.  Suleiman dan Musa  -  C1849-1868
5. Ibrahim I dan Salihi  -  C1868-1884
6. Abdulkadir I dan Salihi     -  C1884-1893
7. Salihi  dan Ibrahim  -  C1893-1894
8. Ibrahim II  dan Musa   -  C1894-1894
9. Abdulkadir II dan Musa    -  C1894-1901
10. Abdulkadir III  dan Ibrahim   -   C1901-1903
11.  Haladu  dan  Sulemanu    -   C1903-1910
12      Halilu    dan Bello             -               C1910-1911
13.  Hamida   dan  Ibrahim    -         C1912-1912
14.  Abdullahi 1 dan Sulemanu   -  C1912-1919
15. Bello II  dan  Abdulkadir -          C1919-1923
16. Suleiman II dan Nuhu   -  C1923-1960
17. Abdullahi Maikano  Sulemanu     -          C1960-1983
18. Mohammadu Sunusi dan Bello -          C1983-1995
19.     Nuhu Muhammad Sanusi            -               C1995-date   


It is significant to highlight that the ascendancy of Fulani in C1807 marks a turning point in the history of Dutse as it lost its independence and became submerged into Kano,  as the clan leaders opted to recognize Sarkin Kano Sulaiman as their spiritual leader.
In return however, Kano conceded a certain degree of autonomy to Dutse particularly in the sphere of Local administration.  For instance the two  ruling clans of Jalligawa and Yalligawa were reserved the exclusive right of producing successive Dutse rulers, while Kano’s role remained  limited to confirmation and installation of nominated candidates for ruler ship.
Such was the nature of the relationship between the two until the British conquest of Kano in 1903 and the subsequent administrative reforms introduced by the imperial power. The reforms fundamentally eroded the autonomy  of Dutse and placed it  under the introduced district head system as the new system of local administration all over Northern Region [including Kano Emirate]. Territories all across the emirate were re-grouped in to consolidated district areas. The then Sarkin Dutse [Haladu] was reverted to a  salaried district head charged primarily with the responsibility of  tax collection under the new dispensation. He later became the first victim of the new system as he was removed in 1910 for failing to collect adequate taxes. However, the exclusive hereditary right of  the two ruling houses in Dutse was preserved after some attempts to change the arrangement.

 


 

 
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